The review question: The review sought to assess how effective strategies were in supporting the implementation of school-based policies and practices to address student diet, physical activity, excessive weight gain, tobacco or alcohol use. We also assessed if these strategies led to improvements in these student health behaviours or weight status, enhanced school staff attitudes or knowledge regarding implementation, had any adverse effects, and were cost-effective.
Background: Research has identified a range of school-based policies and practices that may be potentially effective in improving student health behaviours. Despite this, such policies and practices are often not implemented in schools, even in circumstances where it is mandatory to do so. Unless evidence-based policies and practices are implemented, they can not benefit public health.
Study characteristics: We included 27 trials, 18 of which were conducted in the USA. Fifeteen trials tested strategies to implement healthy eating policies, practice or programs; six trials tested strategies targeting physical activity policies or practices; and three trials targeted tobacco policies or practices. Three trials targeted a combination of health behaviours. None of the included trials sought to increase the implementation of interventions to delay initiation or reduce the consumption of alcohol. The trials tested a range of implementation support strategies, including educational materials, educational meetings, the use of opinion leaders, external funding, local consensus processes, and tailored interventions.
Search date: The evidence is current to 31 August 2016.
Key results: It is uncertain whether the strategies tested improve implementation of the targeted school-based policies or practices, student health behaviours, or the knowledge or attitudes of school staff. It is also uncertain whether the strategies tested result in unintended adverse effects or whether they are cost-effective.
Limitations: Trial heterogeneity, and the lack of consistent terminology describing implementation strategies were important limitations of the review.
Quality of evidence: We rated the overall quality of evidence as very low for all outcomes that included trial-reported effects.
Given the very low quality of the available evidence, it is uncertain whether the strategies tested improve implementation of the targeted school-based policies or practices, student health behaviours, or the knowledge or attitudes of school staff. It is also uncertain if strategies to improve implementation are cost-effective or if they result in unintended adverse consequences. Further research is required to guide efforts to facilitate the translation of evidence into practice in this setting.
A number of school-based policies or practices have been found to be effective in improving child diet and physical activity, and preventing excessive weight gain, tobacco or harmful alcohol use. Schools, however, frequently fail to implement such evidence-based interventions.
The primary aims of the review are to examine the effectiveness of strategies aiming to improve the implementation of school-based policies, programs or practices to address child diet, physical activity, obesity, tobacco or alcohol use.
Secondary objectives of the review are to: Examine the effectiveness of implementation strategies on health behaviour (e.g. fruit and vegetable consumption) and anthropometric outcomes (e.g. BMI, weight); describe the impact of such strategies on the knowledge, skills or attitudes of school staff involved in implementing health-promoting policies, programs or practices; describe the cost or cost-effectiveness of such strategies; and describe any unintended adverse effects of strategies on schools, school staff or children.
All electronic databases were searched on 16 July 2017 for studies published up to 31 August 2016. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; Embase Classic and Embase; PsycINFO; Education Resource Information Center (ERIC); Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Dissertations and Theses; and SCOPUS. We screened reference lists of all included trials for citations of other potentially relevant trials. We handsearched all publications between 2011 and 2016 in two specialty journals (Implementation Science and Journal of Translational Behavioral Medicine) and conducted searches of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/) as well as the US National Institutes of Health registry (https://clinicaltrials.gov). We consulted with experts in the field to identify other relevant research.
'Implementation' was defined as the use of strategies to adopt and integrate evidence-based health interventions and to change practice patterns within specific settings. We included any trial (randomised or non-randomised) conducted at any scale, with a parallel control group that compared a strategy to implement policies or practices to address diet, physical activity, overweight or obesity, tobacco or alcohol use by school staff to 'no intervention', 'usual' practice or a different implementation strategy.
Citation screening, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias was performed by review authors in pairs. Disagreements between review authors were resolved via consensus, or if required, by a third author. Considerable trial heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. We narratively synthesised trial findings by describing the effect size of the primary outcome measure for policy or practice implementation (or the median of such measures where a single primary outcome was not stated).
We included 27 trials, 18 of which were conducted in the USA. Nineteen studies employed randomised controlled trial (RCT) designs. Fifteen trials tested strategies to implement healthy eating policies, practice or programs; six trials tested strategies targeting physical activity policies or practices; and three trials targeted tobacco policies or practices. Three trials targeted a combination of risk factors. None of the included trials sought to increase the implementation of interventions to delay initiation or reduce the consumption of alcohol. All trials examined multi-strategic implementation strategies and no two trials examined the same combinations of implementation strategies. The most common implementation strategies included educational materials, educational outreach and educational meetings. For all outcomes, the overall quality of evidence was very low and the risk of bias was high for the majority of trials for detection and performance bias.
Among 13 trials reporting dichotomous implementation outcomes—the proportion of schools or school staff (e.g. classes) implementing a targeted policy or practice—the median unadjusted (improvement) effect sizes ranged from 8.5% to 66.6%. Of seven trials reporting the percentage of a practice, program or policy that had been implemented, the median unadjusted effect (improvement), relative to the control ranged from -8% to 43%. The effect, relative to control, reported in two trials assessing the impact of implementation strategies on the time per week teachers spent delivering targeted policies or practices ranged from 26.6 to 54.9 minutes per week. Among trials reporting other continuous implementation outcomes, findings were mixed. Four trials were conducted of strategies that sought to achieve implementation 'at scale', that is, across samples of at least 50 schools, of which improvements in implementation were reported in three trials.
The impact of interventions on student health behaviour or weight status were mixed. Three of the eight trials with physical activity outcomes reported no significant improvements. Two trials reported reductions in tobacco use among intervention relative to control. Seven of nine trials reported no between-group differences on student overweight, obesity or adiposity. Positive improvements in child dietary intake were generally reported among trials reporting these outcomes. Three trials assessed the impact of implementation strategies on the attitudes of school staff and found mixed effects. Two trials specified in the study methods an assessment of potential unintended adverse effects, of which, they reported none. One trial reported implementation support did not significantly increase school revenue or expenses and another, conducted a formal economic evaluation, reporting the intervention to be cost-effective. Trial heterogeneity, and the lack of consistent terminology describing implementation strategies, were important limitations of the review.