Gut microbial biomarkers for predicting adverse outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease

This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (prognosis). The objectives are as follows:

To (a) identify the gut microbial biomarkers in patients with CKD, on dialysis, and with kidney transplants; (b) determine whether these biomarkers are associated independently with adverse patient-relevant outcomes leading to progression of CKD stages 1 to 5; and (c) explore sources of heterogeneity.

Investigation of sources of heterogeneity between studies

We will explore potential sources of heterogeneity that may impact outcomes such as differences in study participation; stage of CKD (KDIGO 2013; Appendix 1); study design (cohort, case series, case study), timing of outcome measurements; units and instruments of outcome measurements; and length of follow-up.

This is a protocol.