Children with cancer are prone to developing infection. One of the viral infections is influenza (flu). This can run an innocent course in these children, but some can develop severe complications. This review therefore focused on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children with cancer. We identified no studies that assessed the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination; however, we identified one additional controlled clinical trial in our update, which brings the total to nine studies that assessed immune responses after vaccination in children with cancer. It was shown that children receiving chemotherapy mount poorer immune responses than healthy children, but that the vaccine can be safely administered. On the basis of this updated review, it is not possible to recommend or discourage influenza vaccination in children with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy. A future trial should address the clinical benefits of influenza vaccination in children with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy.
Paediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy are able to generate an immune response to the influenza vaccine, but it remains unclear whether this immune response protects them from influenza infection or its complications. We are awaiting results from well-designed RCTs addressing the clinical benefit of influenza vaccination in these patients.
Influenza infection is a potential cause of severe morbidity in children with cancer; therefore vaccination against influenza is recommended. However, data are conflicting regarding the immune response to influenza vaccination in children with cancer, and the value of vaccination remains unclear.
1. To assess the efficacy of influenza vaccination in stimulating an immunological response in children with cancer during chemotherapy, compared with control groups.
2. To assess the efficacy of influenza vaccination in preventing confirmed influenza and influenza-like illness and/or in stimulating immunological response in children with cancer treated with chemotherapy, compared with placebo, no intervention or different dosage schedules.
3. To identify the adverse effects associated with influenza vaccines in children with cancer treated with chemotherapy, compared with other control groups.
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 2012) up to August 2012. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP).
We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which the serological response to influenza vaccination of children with cancer was compared with that of control groups. We also considered RCTs and CCTs that compared the effects of influenza vaccination on clinical response and/or immunological response in children with cancer being treated with chemotherapy, compared with placebo, no intervention or different dosage schedules.
Two independent review authors assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the data.
We included 1 RCT and 9 CCTs (total number of participants = 770). None of the included studies reported clinical outcomes. All included studies reported on influenza immunity and adverse reactions to vaccination. In five studies, immune responses to influenza vaccine were compared in 272 children receiving chemotherapy and 166 children not receiving chemotherapy. In four studies, responses to influenza vaccine were assessed in 236 children receiving chemotherapy compared with responses in 142 healthy children. Measures used to assess immune responses included a four-fold rise in antibody titre after vaccination, development of a haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre > 32 and pre- and post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs). Immune responses in children receiving chemotherapy were consistently weaker (four-fold rise of 38% to 65%) than those in children who had completed chemotherapy (50% to 86%) and in healthy children (53% to 89%). In terms of adverse effects, 391 paediatric oncology patients received influenza vaccine, and the adverse effects described included mild local reactions and low-grade fever. No life-threatening or persistent adverse effects were reported.