To determine the diagnostic accuracy of trans-thoracic Doppler echocardiography for detecting pulmonary hypertension.
We will aim to study several possible source of heterogeneity as below.
- Types of PH defined by WHO classification (group 3 or not). We expect that it will be more difficult to measure tricuspid regurgitation in patients with lung disease, especially COPD, than in patients without lung disease, which could decrease the sensitivity and specificity of echocardiography to detect PH.
- Mechanical ventilation (including non-invasive positive pressure ventilation) or not.
- Estimation of right atrial pressure (whether estimated by using the diameter and collapse of the inferior vena cava during spontaneous respiration or by any other methods).
This is a protocol.