Discharge planning is the development of an individualised discharge plan for the patient prior to leaving hospital, with the aim of containing costs and improving patient outcomes. Discharge planning should ensure that patients are discharged from hospital at an appropriate time in their care and that, with adequate notice, the provision of other services will be organised. A review of the effects of individualised discharge plans was conducted. After searching for relevant studies, 24 studies were found which compared discharge plans tailored to the individual patients with routine discharge care that was not individualised. This review indicates that a structured discharge plan tailored to the individual patient probably brings about a reduction in hospital length of stay and readmission rates, and an increase in patient satisfaction. The impact on health outcomes is uncertain.
The evidence suggests that a discharge plan tailored to the individual patient probably brings about reductions in hospital length of stay and readmission rates for older people admitted to hospital with a medical condition. The impact of discharge planning on mortality, health outcomes and cost remains uncertain.
Discharge planning is a routine feature of health systems in many countries. The aim of discharge planning is to reduce hospital length of stay and unplanned readmission to hospital, and improve the co-ordination of services following discharge from hospital.
To determine the effectiveness of planning the discharge of individual patients moving from hospital.
We updated the review using the Cochrane EPOC Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Social Science Citation Index (last searched in March 2012).
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an individualised discharge plan with routine discharge care that was not tailored to the individual patient. Participants were hospital inpatients.
Two authors independently undertook data analysis and quality assessment using a pre designed data extraction sheet. Studies are grouped according to patient group (elderly medical patients, patients recovering from surgery and those with a mix of conditions) and by outcome. Our statistical analysis was done on an intention to treat basis, we calculated risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous data using fixed-effect meta-analysis. When combining outcome data was not possible, because of differences in the reporting of outcomes, we have presented the data in narrative summary tables.
We included twenty-four RCTs (8098 patients); three RCTS were identified in this update. Sixteen studies recruited older patients with a medical condition, four recruited patients with a mix of medical and surgical conditions, one recruited patients from a psychiatric hospital, one from both a psychiatric hospital and from a general hospital, and two trials patients admitted to hospital following a fall (110 patients). Hospital length of stay and readmissions to hospital were statistically significantly reduced for patients admitted to hospital with a medical diagnosis and who were allocated to discharge planning (mean difference length of stay -0.91, 95% CI -1.55 to -0.27, 10 trials; readmission rates RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92, 12 trials). For elderly patients with a medical condition there was no statistically significant difference between groups for mortality (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.25, five trials) or being discharged from hospital to home (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.14, two trials). This was also the case for trials recruiting patients recovering from surgery and a mix of medical and surgical conditions. In three trials, patients allocated to discharge planning reported increased satisfaction. There was little evidence on overall healthcare costs.