Complications following facial plastic surgery
Today, facial plastic surgery is one of the most common types of surgery. People frequently chose to have it for aesthetic (beauty) reasons, so doctors need to minimise the unpleasant effects (complications) associated with these procedures. All surgical procedures produce an inflammatory response, which may cause swelling and bruising. Severe swelling and bruising are troublesome for patients, as they delay full recovery.
Why corticosteroids might help
Corticosteroids, more often known as 'steroids', are medicines that doctors prescribe to reduce inflammation in a wide range of conditions. They are commonly used in facial plastic surgery to reduce swelling and bruising, though it is not known how efficient or safe they might be.
The purpose of this review
This review tried to find out whether giving corticosteroids around the time of facial plastic surgery reduces swelling and bruising compared to another intervention, no intervention, or a fake medicine (placebo).
Findings of this review
The review authors searched the medical literature up to January 2014, and identified 10 relevant medical trials, with a total of 422 participants. Nine of these studies were on people having rhinoplasty (surgery to reshape the nose) and one was on people having a facelift.The trials investigated a variety of corticosteroid medicines, as well as different doses of corticosteroids. People in the studies were assessed for swelling and bruising for up to 10 days after surgery. None of the studies stated the funding source.
There was some low quality evidence that a single dose of corticosteroid administered prior to surgery might reduce swelling and bruising over the first two days after surgery, but this advantage was not maintained beyond two days. One study, with 40 participants, showed that high doses of corticosteroid decreased both swelling and bruising between the first and seventh postoperative days. The usefulness of these results is uncertain and there is currently no evidence regarding the safety of the treatment. Five trials did not report on harmful (adverse) effects; four trials reported that there were no adverse effects; and one trial reported adverse effects in two participants treated with corticosteroids as well as in four participants treated with placebo. None of the studies reported recovery time, patient satisfaction or quality of life.
Therefore, the current evidence does not support use of corticosteroids as a routine treatment in facial plastic surgery. More trials will need to be conducted before it can be established whether this treatment works and is safe.
There is limited evidence for rhinoplasty that a single perioperative dose of corticosteroids decreases oedema and ecchymosis formation over the first two postoperative days, but the difference is not maintained after this period. There is also limited evidence that high doses of corticosteroids decrease both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The clinical significance of this decrease is unknown and there is little evidence available regarding the safety of this intervention. More studies are needed because at present the available evidence does not support the use of corticosteroids for prevention of complications following facial plastic surgery.
Early recovery is an important factor for people undergoing facial plastic surgery. However, the normal inflammatory processes that are a consequence of surgery commonly cause oedema (swelling) and ecchymosis (bruising), which are undesirable complications. Severe oedema and ecchymosis delay full recovery, and may make patients dissatisfied with procedures. Perioperative corticosteroids have been used in facial plastic surgery with the aim of preventing oedema and ecchymosis.
To determine the effects, including safety, of perioperative administration of corticosteroids for preventing complications following facial plastic surgery in adults.
In January 2014, we searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase; EBSCO CINAHL; and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS). There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication.
We included RCTs that compared the administration of perioperative systemic corticosteroids with another intervention, no intervention or placebo in facial plastic surgery.
Two review authors independently screened the trials for inclusion in the review, appraised trial quality and extracted data.
We included 10 trials, with a total of 422 participants, that addressed two of the outcomes of interest to this review: swelling (oedema) and bruising (ecchymosis). Nine studies on rhinoplasty used a variety of different types, and doses, of corticosteroids. Overall, the results of the included studies showed that there is some evidence that perioperative administration of corticosteroids decreases formation of oedema over the first two postoperative days. Meta-analysis was only possible for two studies, with a total of 60 participants, and showed that a single perioperative dose of 10 mg dexamethasone decreased oedema formation in the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.16, 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.61, low quality evidence). The evidence for ecchymosis was less consistent across the studies, with some contradictory results, but overall there was some evidence that perioperatively administered corticosteroids decreased ecchymosis formation over the first two days after surgery (SMD = -1.06, 95% CI:-1.47 to -0.65, two studies, 60 participants, low quality evidence ). The difference was not maintained after this initial period. One study, with 40 participants, showed that high doses of methylprednisolone (over 250 mg) decreased both ecchymosis and oedema between the first and seventh postoperative days. The only study that assessed facelift surgery identified no positive effect on oedema with preoperative administration of corticosteroids. Five trials did not report on harmful (adverse) effects; four trials reported that there were no adverse effects; and one trial reported adverse effects in two participants treated with corticosteroids as well as in four participants treated with placebo. None of the studies reported recovery time, patient satisfaction or quality of life. The studies included were all at an unclear risk of selection bias and at low risk of bias for other domains.