Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis versus automated peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed either manually as in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or using mechanical devices as in automated PD (APD). The aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of CAPD and APD. Only three small randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (139 patients) were identified after an extensive literature search, and we found no difference between CAPD and APD for clinically important outcomes. APD may however be considered advantageous in select group of patients such as in the younger PD population and those in employment or education due to its psychosocial advantages. These outcomes were only reported in one trial. Large, long-term RCTs are needed in this area.

Authors' conclusions: 

APD has not been shown to have significant advantages over CAPD in terms of important clinical outcomes. APD may however be considered advantageous in select group of patients such as in the younger PD population and those in employment or education due to its psychosocial advantages. There is a need for a RCT comparing CAPD with APD with sufficiently large patient numbers looking at important clinical outcomes including residual renal function, accompanied by an economic evaluation to clarify the relative clinical and cost-effectiveness of both modalities.

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Background: 

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed either manually as in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or using mechanical devices as in automated PD (APD). APD has been considered to have several advantages over CAPD such as reduced incidence of peritonitis, mechanical complications and greater psychosocial acceptability.

Objectives: 

To assess the comparative efficacy of CAPD and APD in patients who are dialysed for end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Search strategy: 

We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register and CINAHL. Authors of included studies were contacted, reference lists of identified RCTs and relevant narrative reviews were screened.
Date of most recent search: May 2006

Selection criteria: 

RCTs comparing CAPD with APD in patients with ESRD.

Data collection and analysis: 

Data were abstracted independently by two authors onto a standard form. Risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and a mean difference (MD) for continuous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Main results: 

Three trials (139 patients) were included. APD did not differ from CAPD with respect to mortality (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.37), risk of peritonitis (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.11), switching from original PD modality to a different dialysis modality (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.02), hernias (RR 1.26, 95% interval 0.32 to 5.01), PD fluid leaks (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.11 to 9.83), PD catheter removal (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.48) or hospital admissions (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.17). There was no difference between either PD modality with respect to residual renal function (MD -0.17, 95% CI -1.66 to 1.32). One study found that peritonitis rates and hospitalisation were significantly less in patients on APD when results were expressed as episodes/patient-year. Another study found that patients on APD had significantly more time for work, family and social activities.

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