One-step techniques for primary distal hypospadias in children and adolescents

To determine the efficacy and safety of a one-step surgical treatment to repair primary distal hypospadias in boys operated on before 18 years of age, when the distal urethral plate is flat and too narrow to be tubularized. The review will compare the following surgical treatments: tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (Snodgrass 1994), perimeatal-based flap urethroplasty (Mathieu 1932), urethral mobilization and advancement (Koff 1981), and onlay island flap urethroplasty (Elder 1987; Rushton 1998).

This is a protocol.