13 search results
UpdatedCochrane EvidencePublished 9 May 2016
Can nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine and varenicline, help people to stop smoking?Background When people stop smoking they experience cravings to smoke and unpleasant mood changes. Nicotine receptor partial agonists aim to reduce these withdrawal symptoms and the pleasure people usually experience when they smoke. The most widely-available treatment in this drug type is varenicline, which is available world-wide as an aid for quitting ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 24 Mar 2016
Does a combination of stop smoking medication and behavioural support help smokers to stop?Background Behavioural support (such as brief advice and counselling) and medications (including varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapies like patches or gum) help people quit smoking. Many guidelines recommend combining medication and behavioural support to help people stop smoking, but it is unclear if some combinations are more ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 8 Jan 2014
Do medications used to treat depression help smokers who are trying to quitBackground and review questions Some medications and supplements that have been used to treat depression (antidepressants) have been tested to see whether they also help people who are trying to stop smoking. Two antidepressants, bupropion (Zyban) and nortriptyline, are sometimes prescribed to help with quitting smoking. This review set out to ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 6 Jun 2013
Do opioid antagonists such as naltrexone help people to stop smoking?Opioid antagonists are a type of drug which blunts the effects of narcotics such as heroin and morphine, and might help reduce nicotine addiction by blocking some of the rewarding effects of smoking. Our review identified eight trials of naltrexone, a long-acting opioid antagonist. The trials included over 1200 smokers. Half the trials gave everyone ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 14 Nov 2012
Can nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) help people quit smoking?NRT aims to reduce withdrawal symptoms associated with stopping smoking by replacing the nicotine from cigarettes. NRT is available as skin patches that deliver nicotine slowly, and chewing gum, nasal and oral sprays, inhalers, and lozenges/tablets, all of which deliver nicotine to the brain more quickly than from skin patches, but less rapidly than ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 12 Sep 2012
Does silver acetate help people stop smokingSilver acetate products (gum, lozenge, and spray) produce an unpleasant metallic taste when combined with cigarettes, so they are used as a form of aversion therapy for smoking. However, the review of trials found little evidence to show that silver acetate helps smokers quit. Any beneficial effect of silver acetate is likely to be very small, and less ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 15 Aug 2012
Can nicotine vaccines help people stop smoking or help stop recent quitters from relapsing?Nicotine is the main addictive component in tobacco. When a person smokes a cigarette, nicotine causes chemicals in the brain to be released, which gives a feeling of reward to the smoker. This reward is part of the reason why people keep smoking. Nicotine vaccines are designed to work by reducing the effects of nicotine on the brain, meaning the smoker ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 15 Feb 2012
Can lobeline help people to quit smokingLobeline is an alkaloid derived from the leaves of an Indian tobacco plant, and has been widely used in commercial smoking remedies. Its adverse effects include dizziness, nausea, and vomiting, and tablets and pastilles containing Lobeline may lead to throat irritation. The review found no adequate long-term trials which could provide evidence that ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 16 Mar 2011
Can cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists help smokers to quit, and could they also reduce the amount of weight gained during the quitting process?Long-term use of nicotine can upset the endocannabinoid system in the brain, which controls food intake and energy balance. Rimonabant and similar drugs may help smokers to quit by rebalancing the system, which then reduces nicotine and food cravings. We searched our own specialised register of controlled trials. We also contacted Sanofi Aventis, the ...
Cochrane EvidencePublished 19 Apr 2006
Does Nicobrevin help people to stop smokingNicobrevin is a proprietary product containing quinine, menthyl valerate, camphor and eucalyptus oil marketed as an aid to smoking cessation. No randomised trials with long-term follow-up of smoking status were identified, so there was no evidence to assess efficacy.