There is considerable interest in detecting vesicoureteral reflux in children, a condition in which urine can flow backwards from the bladder to the kidney, and cause kidney damage. It can be diagnosed with a test called a voiding cystourethrogram, but this is invasive and exposes children to x-rays. It’s important therefore to find other accurate methods and a new Cochrane Review from July 2016 evaluated two possible alternative imaging tests as ways to identify children who have vesicoureteral reflux and are at higher risks of long-term kidney damage, but with less discomfort and radiation than a voiding cystourethrogram. The review was done by Dr. Nader Shaikh and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the USA. In this evidence pod, his colleague, Dr Stephanie Hum tells us what they found.